Gita Saar, Chapter – 18

Gita Saar, Chapter – 18

Gita Saar, Chapter – 18

(Aadishri Arun)

Gita-Saar-Chapt- 18

In the last chapter of the Gita-chapter 18, Lord Krishna summarizes the fundamental principles of the Gita and reiterates its basic message.

Chapter 18 starts with elaborations on the nature of Action. Lord Krishna explains that individual actions and the intention behind our actions are the crucible-on which depends our ultimate destination-whether it is bondage or liberation.

All of us are bound by having to act since no-one can be inactive in this physical life and every action committed ( in thoughts deeds or words) has binding impacts attached to it.

The million dollar question then is – How to escape the bondage of our actions and be liberated?

The Gita explains that when action is done right, it no longer binds us to the wheel of re-birth and such an action is deemed Dharma-righteous action. Such an action leads us to liberation.

It can be said that by committing right action-Dharma, that is the only way to liberation and here in the last chapter of Gita Lord Krishna gives full emphasis to the understanding of what is Dharmic action.

The chapter 18 starts with Arjuna asking Lord Krishna about the nature of Tyaga (giving up worldly objects) and Sanyaas( renunciation & withdrawal from the world).

The reason why Arjuna asks this question is because he is still trying to avoid the action of battle in which he will have to kill his relatives and friends. He wonders that if Dhyaana, Tyaaga and Gyaana are equally valid methods to reach liberation, then why should he have to chose the path of karma-in which he has to kill his friends and relatives.

Lord Krishna immediately understands the question behind the question and answers it squarely by saying that the real meaning of Tyaga and Sanyaas is giving up the fruits of action and by acting without selfish motives rather than avoiding the action itself.

Lord Krishna then goes into further detail. He says that some wise men debate this point by thinking that since all actions have some measure of evil in them, all action should be avoided as much as possible. While some others believe that actions related to sacrifice, penance and charity should not be shunned.

Lord Krishna then gives the definitive word of God on this subject.

He says-that Sanyaas and Tyaga are themselves of three types. Sattvika, Rajasic and tamasic. He says further that acts of sacrifice, charity and penance must not be given up since these acts purify that person who executes them sincerely and diligently.

Lord Krishna exhorts Arjuna by saying that the individual must strive to give up selfishly motivated action but a prescribed duty must never be abandoned.

Lord Krishna further says that if anyone abandons his prescribed duty (as Arjuna is trying to do) then this ignorant abandonment is not Sanyaas or Tyaga but it is tamasika in nature. To avoid a duty because it is difficult, troublesome or painful or even difficult to perform is rajasic or tamasika in nature and is definitely not Sanyaas or Tyaga i.e. It is essentially cowardice and escapism.

That person who performs an action without even thinking whether the action is leading to bondage or liberation-because such an action is his duty, such an attitude in itself is Sanyaas and Tyaga.

Lord Krishna further reiterates that in this physical body inaction is not possible, hence we all have have to act. Thus renunciation can be achieved only by acting without selfish desire and by not being attached to the fruits of the action that one takes.

Lord Krishna then explains those people who act without being able to give up their selfish desires of the fruits of their actions, such people gain three kinds of results-agreeable, disagreeable and mixed, depending on the action they take.

Good; bad; or mixed, all actions lead to bondage when done with a selfish motive. All such actions bind us to the wheel of karma. We will be reborn in any case to experience the pleasurable, painful or mixed results of our actions.

But the secret is that if a person is not attached to the fruits of his actions and does them only as his duty, such a person can perform any kind of action and not be bound by the fruits of that action. Such a person gains liberation swiftly.

The actions we take all come from our desires. Our body, mind, organs of the senses & actions and latent tendencies force us into prescribed or prohibited actions.

Yet even if a persons actions are tainted but he is able to reach a point where he understands that he is not the doer or experiencer of his own actions, but that  God Himself experiences those actions through such a persons body, such a person does not sin.

All action is enabled by creating divisions. Divisions between the knower, knowledge and the objects of knowledge and between the doer of the action, the organs of action and the action itself.

Lord Krishna further explains that all knowledge that helps a person understand the oneness of all things thereby dissolving divisions, such a knowledge is considered Sattvika. That knowledge that enhances the divisions of creation, such a knowledge is Rajasic and the knowledge that makes one self obsessed to one’s body and one’s own self, such a knowledge is considered tamasika.

Similarly all actions that are done without sense of selfish ownership, such actions are considered Sattvika. Those actions that are done for personal gain or because of worldly attachment, those actions are considered Rajasic and the actions that are ignorant and without any thoughts of the consequences for oneself or others, such an action is considered tamasika.

A person who is unswayed by the results of his actions and he does them as his duty, such a person is Sattvika.

The one who acts to achieve his personal goals or for indulgence of his personal desires, such a man is Rajasic while a man who does so out of ignorance, sloth, with the intention of deceiving others or because of procrastination, such a man is Tamasic.

Lord Krishna further describes the nature of wisdom that one has as per these three categories.

He says that –

If a man is able to discern truth from falsehood, right action from wrong action, fear from fearlessness and bondage from liberation, his wisdom is Sattvika in nature.

A person who acts out of his selfish desire to indulge in the world, without thinking of dharma or adharma, and who achieves worldly success, such a man has rajasic wisdom and a person who is inverted-thinks of adharma as Dharma and Dharma as adharma, such a person is operating from a tamasic intellect.

A man who is able to control his varying mind and body and make them God oriented, such a man is Sattvika but if a man is highly persevering of his personal desires, meditating not on God but his attachments and desires, such a man is Rajasic in nature while a tamasic man will persevere in things such as laziness, sleep, sloth etc.

Lord Krishna then explains the three-fold nature of joy as well.

A person who adores God and focuses on him even to the extent of abandoning worldly pleasures, such a person experiences Sattvika joy. Initially that joy may taste bland but the taste and benefits soon turn nectar-like On the other hand the joy experienced through the contact of the senses with worldly objects, which may initially seem like nectar-like but which soon turn sour, such joys are Rajasic in nature. And those joys that stupefy the senses, such joys are graded as tamasika.

Thus Sattvika joy is experienced when we experience God within us, Rajasic joy is experienced when we contact objects of the world through our senses and when they give us a thrill and tamasika joy is experienced when we stupefy our senses and in that stillness we experience happiness.

All people born of creation-even the gods and demigods, are bound by the three Gunaas and behave under their influences. The category of Brahmins, Kshatriya, vaishyas and Sudra are categorized, not by birth but by the preponderance of specific Gunaas in each category.

For example, a person who likes to follow the path towards God, through gaining knowledge through the sanctioned scriptures and who carries out all practices with God in his mind such a person is a Brahmin by nature.

A person who is naturally heroic, fearless, gallant, majestic etc is a Kshatriya by nature.

A person who carries out honest trade is categorized as a Vaishya and the one who believes in selfless service towards others has the nature of a Sudra.

God further emphasizes that one should recognize one’s innate nature and figure out which category one fits in. After recognizing one’s innate nature one should engage in that work or profession where one can easily express ones innate nature.

It is only by doing so can one reach liberation since it is by offering one’s natural work produce (Swadharma), that God can be pleased. That means a Brahmin should offer his knowledge to God. A Kshatriya should offer his duty and courageous actions to God, while a Vaishya should offer part of his honest profit to God and the Sudra should serve others selflessly as if he was serving the Lord himself.

Lord explains what is swadharma ? Sanatan Dharm, Hindu dharm, Christian Dharm, Isalam Dharm, Shikh Dharm, Bauddh Dharm, Jain Dharm etc are not Swadharma because it is founded by human mind. The Dharma founded by God Himself is called Swadharma. Swadharma can compare to the fragrance of rose, coolness of water, hit of fire etc. It can be compared to 100% purity. This is the reason Lord says – come back to origin.

Lord explains how to attain perfection – the action that is natural to the individual gives perfection. By performing one’s natural occupation (by perfoming swadharma), one worships the Creator most easily. By doing such natural work, a person easily attains perfection.

This is the quickest path to enlightenment.

Lord Krishna further emphasizes this point that it is better to stick to ones duties and offer their fruit to God rather than try to offer worship God through artificial or special actions such as havans and yagyas.

One should not worry about the inherent evil in ones duties since all actions have some evil just as all fire is covered by some degree of smoke.

What is important is that as long as one offers the fruit of his dutiful work to God, one incurs no sin.

For a person-who has understood all this, the nature of creation itself is no mystery. He understands that creation is like a machine with deluded souls taking births as per their deluded goals and attachments. The realized person has no desire to get on this wheel of creation, unless ofcourse God Himself asks him to do so to achieve a certain necessary task.

For such a liberated person all actions are duties and therefore action-less in their inherent nature. Such actions sooth and simplify the nature of reality rather than making it more turbulent.

People who reach such a level of realized knowledge live a simple and undefiled life, they eat simple Sattvika food, reject the objects of the senses, naturally control their minds, speech and body actions and have no more personal worldly goals. Such tigers amongst men become qualified to be immersed in the eternal Brahman-that is Truth, Consciousness, Bliss.

Established in these triple blessings such people are ever cheerful, happy, joyful and not in need of anything specific to be happy. Such people are naturally devoted to the one and only Truth-Paramatma.

And such persons, through their single pointed devotion come to know God.

The fact is that outward actions or their renunciation are not important. Even if such a person with such a high level of understanding and devotion acts or is action oriented and yet who surrenders all his actions to God, such a person by God’s grace reaches God even though he is immersed in all worldly actions.

Therefore advice Lord Krishna to Arjuna-”Dedicate all your thoughts, actions and words to me. Say, think and do all things with me in mind as if you are doing them on my behalf. If you do this you will come to me. But if you live for yourself and for the fulfillment of your fears and desires, you will be lost.”

Lord Krishna then tells Arjuna that his desire not to fight is not true renunciation but is borne of fear and selfishness.

Towards the end of the chapter Lord Krishna gives further clear instructions to Arjuna about how to be realized.

Lord Krishna had already described in chapter 11 the various forms of Lord Krishna that exist. They are as follows:-

  1. Narayan Rishi, 2. Shri Narayan taking rupam of Shri Krishna living in Vaikunth Dham, 3. Shri Krishna living in Golok Dham and 4. Four Arms Shriman Vishnu  or Lord Vishnu living in Kshir-sagar i.e. Kshirdakosayi Vishnu.

Lord said clearly – Take refuge wholeheartedly in Him only (Four Arms Shriman Vishnu  or Lord Vishnu living in Kshir-sagar only),

He says “O Bhaarata. With His grace you will attain supreme peace and the eternal abode.”

Lord Krishna says again and again, throughout the Gita that it is to this fourth form only of the Lord that Arjuna should surrender to since only this form is the ultimate and this form will give a swift liberation.

Lord Krishna further says that it is by devotion that one comes to the Lord. However knowledge and karma and methods are essential because without knowledge or without taking action, no progress can be made.

Lord Krishna further says that – Always engaging in all actions, if one who considers Me as his refuge (the four armed form), through my grace attains that eternal, imperishable state.

Lord Krishna then tells Arjuna that He – Lord Krishna, has imparted to him, the highest and most secret of knowledge’s, a knowledge that leads to liberation but Lord Krishna can do no more and the decision to fight or to not fight is Arjuna’s alone.

Lord Krishna also cautions Arjuna about the pious nature of the Gita’s teachings and warns him that the teachings of the Gita must not be disseminated to unworthy people- those who have no real interest in liberation.

God further says that in no case should the Gita be preached to the unwilling or to those who find fault with God. The reason is that this text is useful only for those who single mindedly love the Lord and are sincerely seeking only Him. For such people the Gita is perfect for finding quick liberation. And such people who share what they have gained from the Gita to other deserving people, those people are the dearest to God since they do God’s work.

Lord Krishna also tells Arjuna that this dialogue is not just for Arjuna but to all sincere devotees who seek the Lord. Thus Lord Krishna makes it clear that the nature of the Gita is to help humanity in general and it is not just for Arjuna’s liberation.

Lord Krishna  told – Hear again my supreme instruction, the most confidential of all knowledge. I am revealing this for your benefit because you are very dear to me (Gita18:64). Always think of Me, be devoted to Me, worship Me, and offer obeisance to Me. Doing so, you will certainly come to Me. This is My pledge to you, for you are very dear to Me (Gita18:65).

In the last Lord warned not only to Arjuna but to the people of the whole world – If you remember Me always, by My grace you will overcome all obstacles and difficulties. But if, due to pride, you do not listen to My advice, you will perish (Gita18:58). It is the demand of time to follow the Lord’s instruction by hook or by crook.

Lord Krishna ends by asking Arjuna whether his doubts have been cleared and is he ready to take up his Bow and fight the righteous battle..

Arjuna answers in the affirmative and says that by Lord Krishna’s grace, his doubts have been dispelled and he is ready for battle and he will do God’s bidding.

Thus ends the Bhagwat Gita – The song divine – with Sanjay informing Dhritarashtra that he – Sanjay is blessed to have been able to hear and witness the words and visions of God Himself through Lord Krishna and that he thrills to have gained such knowledge.

And that wherever God and true devotee are together.

Gita Saar, Chapter - 17

Gita Saar, Chapter – 17

Gita Saar, Chapter – 17

(Aadishri  Arun)

Gita-Saar-Chapt 17

Lord Krishna explains in the previous chapter 16 that to succeed on the spiritual path the simplest way is to avoid the triple gates of hell-lust anger and greed and to live as per the injunctions of the scriptures. Yet for most people, in their daily living, the lines of right actions as opposed to wrong action is not clear.

This is the confusion that Arjuna addresses in chapter 17.

He asks lord Krishna on how to decide whether a persons actions are Sattvika-balanced, Rajasic-desire driven or Tamasic-ignorance driven?

Arjuna asks this key question since he knows that the motive behind a persons actions are the key to their spiritual progress.

For example, if we act out of Sattva, our spiritual journey will go in the right direction, while if we act in rajasic or tamasic manner, our journey will go downwards- towards further bondage.

Lord Krishna answers Arjuna’s question by saying that all men who act out of faith or belief, could be acting out of either Rajas, Tamas or Sattva. (Men who act without faith and conviction act out of fear) Once a man acts out of faith of any kind, it is usually aligned to the mode of action that is suited to the mental disposition of such a man.

Lord Krishna then points out ways to find out the mental disposition of an average person.

A straightforward way is by checking which god a person worships.

A man of Sattvika faith worships the gods. The man of Rajasic disposition worships the demi-gods since the demigods are known to grant boons and grant worldly desires and the people of tamasic disposition prefer to worship ghosts, spirits and such things.

Lord Krishna further says that those who needlessly torture their bodies by over fasting and denial, such people are of actually demonic disposition since such people are only torturing and denying the very body temple where the in-dwelling supreme Brahman resides.

The nature of people can also be detected by the kind of food that they prefer to eat and also by the nature of sacrifices, charities and penance that people perform.

Lord Krishna describes this in more detail.

He describes foods that promote health,  longevity, vigor, intelligence, happiness and cheerfulness as Sattvika Such foods are usually juicy, succulent, substantial and naturally agreeable in character. Such foods are liked by people of Sattvika nature.

Foods that are salty, bitter, sour, over hot, pungent, dry and burning and which cause suffering, grief and sickness, such foods are liked by the people of Rajasic nature.

And finally food that is ill cooked, nor fully ripe, insipid, putrid, stale and polluted and which is impure is liked by the people of Tamasic nature.

Lord Krishna then explains that sacrifices that are made as per scriptures for no personal gains but simply as duty-such sacrifices are called Sattvika in nature.

He further explains that sacrifices that are made for show or for personal worldly gain, such sacrifices are called rajasic in nature. And those sacrifices that are made without scriptural sanction, without the offering of food or sacrificial fee and without good faith, such sacrifices are called tamasika.

Lord Krishna then goes on to explain the nature of penance.

When gods, Brahmins, elders, gurus are worshiped and purity, continence, straightforwardness and non-violence is practiced in one’s daily life, such behavior is called penance of the body.

Words that are healing in nature, cause no annoyance, are truthful, beneficial and agreeable as well as those words that are chanting gods name or reading the scriptures, these are called penance of speech.

Cheerfulness, placidity, habit of God contemplation, control of mind and purity of inner being, all this is called penance of the mind.

Those people who perform the above three penances-body speech and mind, such people are said to be Sattvika in nature.

But those same penances when performed for pomp and show or for worldly gains, such people are said to be of Rajasic nature.

And when penances are performed due to obstinacy, or leads to self mortification or harming others, such penances are considered tamasika

Lord Krishna also describes the nature of a gift that is given. A gift that is given as a duty without expectations, to a deserving person, at an appropriate occasion, such a gift is considered Sattvika in nature while a gift given  grudgingly or with expectation of a gain or reward, such a gift is considered a Rajasic gift while gifts given with mean spirit to undeserving people is considered a tamasika gift.

Lord Krishna then describes the meaning of the words OM TAT SAT.

He says clearly that – “From the beginning of creation, the three syllables – OM TAT SAT-have been used to indicate the Supreme Absolute Truth [Brahman]. They were uttered by Brahmins while chanting Vedic hymns and during sacrifices, for the satisfaction of the Supreme. Thus the transcendentalists undertake sacrifices, charities, and penances, beginning always with Om, to attain the Supreme. One should perform sacrifice, penance and charity with the word Tat to get free from the material entanglement and the Absolute Truth is the objective of devotional sacrifice, and it is indicated by the word Sat. These works of sacrifice, of penance and of charity, true to the absolute nature, are performed to please the Supreme Person.”

Lord Krishna cautions that such sacrifices, austerities and charities performed without faith in the Supreme are non permanent and are called Asat. They are  useless both in this life and the next.

Gita Saar, Chapter  – 16

Gita Saar, Chapter – 16

Gita Saar, Chapter  – 16

(Aadishri Arun)

Gita-Saar-Chapt- 16

Chapter 16 starts with Lord Krishna describing the qualities of those people who are progressing on the spiritual path and he also describes the qualities of those people who are demonic in nature and are heading in the opposite direction.

The list is useful because any seeker who may want to know what level he is at and which direction is he heading, he can do so by reading this list and co-relating it with his own situation.

God describes the qualities of the spiritual seeker as below:-

Fearlessness, purity of heart, single focus on God through meditation,charity of a Satvika nature, control of the senses (self-restraint), worship of God and all other deities and ones elders, performing the fire sacrifice, performing sacred duties, studying one’s own scriptures (Vedas), austerity and simplicity; non-violence (ahimsa), truthfulness, absence of anger, renunciation, peacefulness, aversion to fault-finding, compassion to all living beings, and living without greed; gentleness, modesty, and steady determination, arduous, forgiveness, steadfast, purity, absence of hatred, absence of pride (humility) – these belong to one who is endowed with the divine nature.

Next, God describes the devilish qualities – “O Parth, the qualities of those who possess a demoniac nature are hypocrisy, arrogance, conceit, anger, harshness,and ignorance.”

These are the two broad type of persons in the world. The first one heads towards liberation the second one leads deeper and deeper into Sansaar.

God then describes men of predominantly demonic nature. He calls them fundamentally deluded because they have no idea what is right activity nor what is wrong activity. For them this world is all there is and that the act of sex is the be- all and the end-all. For such indulgent, men everything is born in lust (casual sexual desire) and they are strangers to true love.

For such persons, the pursuit of endless desires is a goal in itself since according to them, everything is born through indulgence of desire in any case. For such persons, self indulgence is also very important since they think that they are the center of the universe and the world has been created only for their pleasure. For them sensuous pleasure is the highest goal to be achieved and they indulge in it till their dying day. In fact they want more and more indulgences even as their bodies get old and unable to bear the load of sensuous indulgences that their minds constantly crave.  Since such people will do anything to indulge in their selfish desires, they get constantly mired in more and more relationships and karmic debts and they get more and more deeply trapped in Sansaar. Such people also believe that it is they who are responsible for their achievements and their ego increases with every passing day.

Desire, anger and greed are their calling cards and its indulgence gets these kind of people lower and lower and into further and further depths of hell. They constantly take birth in demonic wombs and sink to the bottom of hell with this attitude.

Lord Krishna gives a simple advice to all those who want to want to take the path to liberation but don’t know how to get out of the entanglement of Sansaar.

He says “Avoid the triple gates to hell- Lust Anger and Greed.”

He advises that when a person does this, that persons downfall stops.

At the end of chapter 16, Lord Krishna advices the spiritual seeker to take the help and guidance of the spiritual texts when he is confused about what is right and wrong action. That is a sure shot way of preventing mistakes.

Gita Saar, Chapter – 15

Gita Saar, Chapter – 15

Gita Saar, Chapter – 15

(Aadishri Arun)

Gita-Saar-Chapt- 15

 

After explaining in chapter 13 and chapter 14, the concept of the Kshetra and Kshetrajana and also the mechanism of the modes of action, through which the individual soul experiences creation, in chapter 15  Lord Krishna gives the complete logical structure of the nature of creation and he talks further about the nature of the  supreme self.

After explaining in chapter 13 and chapter 14, the concept of the Kshetra and Kshetrajana and also the mechanism of the modes of action, through which the individual soul experiences creation, in chapter 15  Lord Krishna gives the complete logical structure of the nature of creation and he talks further about the nature of the  supreme self.

Lord Krishna likens creation to a tree.

Just as the tree has roots, leaves and branches  similarly the structure of creation has its roots firmly nourished in the soil of the supreme Brahman The supporting branches of this tree can be likened to Brahma (the creator of the physical world) and the leaves can be likened to the Vedas, which are considered to be the constitution (rules) of creation.

Creation can also be described in another way-It is a tree-like entity whose leaves are the sense organs through which creation is experienced via the three modes of action, and this tree spreads its foliage both up and down into the various levels of creation with the roots  feeding these sensory experiences to the soul, which is the eternal Brahma.

These two descriptions of the the tree help explain how creation is linked to the Paraatma through the logic(Vedas) of creation and it also explains  how the individual soul experiences creation through the mechanism of the senses through the modes of action (Gunaas).

After describing the tree of creation in these two manners, Lord Krishna hastens to add that this tree structure of creation is not worth dwelling over since there is nothing fundamentally important about it since this structure of creation is constantly in flux-ever-changing like a kaleidoscope.

Lord Krishna points out that since creation is forever in flux, it is of not much use to try to understand the nature of reality by studying creation as many people try to do.

Lord Krishna says that it is actually better to ignore creation and instead focus on the only Truth-The supreme Brahma since it is the source of all creation. If one understands the supreme Brahma, one understands all aspects of creation as well.

Lord Krishna then discusses how can we successfully carry out the study of the eternal Brahma.

He says that we must first inculcate the spirit of open mindedness and egolessness in us. We must be dispassionate and not be swayed by the constant pleasure/ pain that we experience in this Sansaar through our body senses.  The sensory organs of the body will constantly give us input since they are inexorably linked to Sansaar and there is no mechanism to switch them off. But if we have to truly study the Creator, we must learn to ignore our sensory perceptions because they will always lead us outward.

Thus our attention must shift in a non egoistic and open-minded manner to studying the Creator who sits inside our very self rather than be enamored of all the outside drama that creation provides us through our senses.

Lord Krishna then explains the eternal Brahma that resides in us more elaborately. He says that Our soul is but a waft of the eternal spirit and that draws around itself the mind and the senses-which in themselves reside in the abode of Prakriti.

This supreme self takes form, gathers the mind and the senses around it and takes a body for a period of time, to gain certain experiences. After that experience is gained, the supreme self leaves that particular body, taking the mind and senses along with it and it then enters another Kshetra-body field for yet another experience. This carries on as long as the Kshetrajana is interested in gaining different experiences. But once a particular soul has its fill of worldly experiences, it wants to go back to its true nature. Such a soul then takes on those bodies (Kshetras) that help it go back to god-head.

Ignorant people are unaware of this mechanism of creation-that it is this supreme self that enjoys the experiences through the medium of the body and through the three Gunaas and they think of the body and the experiences as real. Such people remain enamoured and attracted to Sansaar.

On the the other hand, those who strive to learn the real absolute truth(go back home), realize that focusing on the eternal Brahma is the only way forward and they learn to purify and sensitize their perceptions so that they can actually distinguish the creator from creation within their own bodies. i.e. they are able to see the viewer(Kshetrajana) as separate from the Kshetra-the body field.

Lord Krishna then goes on to describe the nature of the eternal Brahma. He says that the eternal Brahma is the sustainer of all things. It is the light that gives the sun and stars their power to illuminate. It is the supreme self that nourishes and supports all of creation. It is the fire that gives fire its energy and it is the prana that flows through all creation in various forms that digests and assimilates all kinds of food. The supreme Brahma is the very basis of everything that exists.

Lord Krishna says further that it is He, the supreme Brahma, who sits within the  hearts of all beings and it is he who provides the basis of all rational, conscious and intelligent facilities of all beings.

And that, it is He-the eternal Brahma, that speaks through Krishna, who is alone worth knowing through the study of the Vedaas and further that He alone is the entirety of Vedas and further that He is the only one who knows the Vedas completely.

Lord Krishna then goes on to say that the even Purush and Prakriti-the first Creation rest in the eternal Brahma but the eternal Brahma is beyond them as well.

And since the eternal Brahma is beyond the Purush, He is also known as Purushottama-the first Purush or the ultimate Purush.

Chapter 15 ends with God saying that once any individual soul realizes who the supreme being really is, such a person can worship and adore nothing else since everything else fades in comparison. After all if the original is available then why would the wise person pay attention to imitations?

When a person reaches this stage of understanding, that person’s journey is complete and his mission of life over. Such a person’s consciousness expands to encompass the entirety of Brahma and such a person  becomes indistinguishable from the eternal Brahma itself.

Gita saar, Chapter – 14

Gita saar, Chapter – 14

Gita saar, Chapter – 14

(Aadishri Arun)

Gita saar, Chapter – 14

In Chapter 14, the Supreme Personality, summarizes that knowledge, which when understood leads to Moksha /liberation.

God explains that those people who come to understand and internalize this knowledge are not only liberated from the wheel of karma but they also are not disturbed at the time of the great cosmic dissolution-Pralaya.

God then describes how this world was created. He explains to Arjuna that He-God, is Himself the great Brahma – the Creator of everything  that exists.

God says that the truth is that He is the very womb from which everything emerges.

God goes on to explain how He created the many from His single being.

He explains that although He Himself is the primordial womb and the only thing that exists, yet to create the world, He first divided Himself to bring to life the first creation – duality. This first division is called Purush and Prakriti or the male and the female principle. Once the eternal Lord created duality, He then as Purush placed the seed of all life into the womb of Prakriti and creation started multiplying thereafter. In this manner the Nirguna form of God takes on the Saguna form of Purush and Prakriti and the journey of creation starts.

Prakriti is the original creative field which contains all the objects and tools necessary to create. All Prakriti needs is the seed from the Purush to start the creative process. The primary tool Prakriti uses are the three modes of action-Rajas, Sattva and Tamas. These modes activates the spirit of action in the sub fields that have been created by Prakriti and impregnated by the Purush. Once these sub fields have been created they interact with all the other fields to create multitudes of creation as per the laws of creation (The law of karma). This way the cycles of creation go on and on.

The three modes of action are the primary tools that acting through the kshetras (fields) create the world and God explains the nature and mechanism by which the three modes of action operate. Sattva is described as the motive of goodness/joy, Rajas is described as the motive of passion/desire and Tamas is described as the motive of ignorance/delusion/sloth.

Sattva activates the deluded soul through joy, Rajas attracts the deluded soul to action through desire for worldly things and Tamas attracts the deluded soul through the desire to rest and sleep.

Whatever action a person takes, it happens when one of the attributes overpowers the other two. When Sattva dominates, the person acts out of joy; when rajas dominates the person acts out of desire and when tamas dominates the person acts out of delusion.

Each of these states have their readily recognizable symptoms in the individual. When Sattva dominates, the person will feel light and his powers of discernment/ wisdom are strong. When one feels greedy and restless the person should know that Rajas predominates and when Tamas prevails that the person feels lazy and indulges in frivolous, familiar, mechanical/ mindless and restful actions.

It must be noted that all the three modes are binding us to the wheel of karma. None of these can lead to liberation and it is only by rising above them can we realize the vastness of our eternal nature.

The important question for any seeker is-How do I rise above the three Gunaas?

The answer that God gives in chapter 14 is that a soul can transcend these modes through the understanding of  the ephemeral nature of this world, in realizing that only God is real /eternal and as a consequence of this realization, come to love only God. When a soul reaches this stage of realization, it cannot be tempted by the three modes of action and thereby it rises above these modes and is liberated.

By knowing the secrets of chapter 14 and by accepting these truths from the heart, seekers will automatically get liberation /Moksha .

God explains further that not only our present life but even our next life is dependent on which mode of action we are in at the time of death. Our next birth is determined in large part by our predominant mental state at the time of death. A sattvic state leads a jeeva to be born into a family of knowledge/ wisdom and that improves its chance of liberation in the next life. A rajasic state at time of death leads to a materialistic and action oriented family in the next life. A tamasic state leads a jeeva to take birth in an animal or plant species.

When one acts in Sattva the reward / karma accrued is joy, wisdom and dispassion. When we act in Rajas, the reward is sorrow and when we act in tamas, ignorance, insensitivity and coarseness is the result.

Those predominantly in Sattva wend their way upward, those in tamas fall further away from realization while those in Rajas generally remain firmly tied to the wheel of prakriti.

Arjuna asks the obvious next question – what are signs of a person who has transcended the three gunas?

Shri Krishna replies  that the one who has risen above is is not impacted/ affected or attached to any of the gunas. Such a person views the entire universe, including his body, as gunas acting upon gunas.

She Krishna further explains that such a person shows complete and utter equanimity towards objects, situations and people at all times. For such a person a clod of earth is as valuable as a piece of Gold since both are useless in getting Moksha. The only thing that such a person cares for is the love of God.

God also explains the practical methods of transcending the gunas. It can be done only through single pointed devotion to God, since God is the abode of nirguna Brahman, the unconditioned and pure eternal essence.

The individual soul has to climb back the same ladder through which creation was done. From the One, to the dual and then to the multitude is how we have come. We need to climb back in reverse-from the multitude to the dual and then to One beyond all creation. We need to detach from Prakriti and attach ourselves to God. That is the way back.

To succeed we have to be detached from the indulgences of Prakriti and be equanimous in the face of any kind of situation whether painful or pleasurable, or whether honorable or humiliating When such a calm state is achieved naturally and without coercion, the seeker moves beyond the Gunaas effortlessly and quickly find liberation. Such a person treats all-whether friend or foe, whether useful or useless with equality and such a person also renounces the sense of doer ship in his actions. Such a person does only what is his duty and not for his own sensory gratification. And the work he does to live in this world is only for the purpose of paying his dues and not be a burden on others.

Once a person moves beyond the Gunaas, he is able to discern that only the gunas are acting through his body, not God and that God-the Originator stands far beyond the purview of the Gunaas.

Since such a person loves only God and is devoted only to God, that person is no longer interested in the modes of actions or in the games of Prakriti.

God says that such a person is quickly realized/ liberated and merges back into the formless Brahma-Nirguna.